Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Mystical Caves Used Throughout Mythology Essays - God, Free Essays

Mystical Caves Used Throughout Mythology Essays - God, Free Essays Mystical Caves Used Throughout Mythology The use of caves in mythology to depict darkness and abandonment has branded it as a symbol of chaos. From this perception other associations are made which connect the cave to prejudices, malevolent spirits, burial sites, sadness, resurrection and intimacy. It is a world to which only few venture, and yet its mysticism has attracted the interest of philosophers, religious figures and thinkers throughout history. These myths are exemplified in Homers "Odyssey," where the two worlds of mortals and immortals unite in the eternal cave. To Plato, the cave represents the confusion between reality and falsehood. Individuals chained deep within the recesses of the cave mistake their shadows for physical existence. These false perceptions, and the escape from bonds held within the cave symbolize transition into the a world of reality. Comparatively, in the Odyssey, Odysseus must first break with Kalypso, and set himself free before he can return to Ithaka, when he will then be prepared to release Penelope from the bondage of suitors. His experience within the cave is in itself a world of fantasy, in that Kalypso is a supernatural being, and the only way to escape her enslavement is to receive assistance from immortals superior to her. The philosopher Francis Bacon also theorized about the myth attached to caves in which he maintained that "idols," meaning prejudices and preconceived notions possessed by an individual, were contained in a persons "cave," or obscure, compartment, with "intricate and winding chambers"1 . Beliefs that caves were inhabited by negative thoughts, or spirits, were also held by the native-American culture, in which these spirits influenced the outcome of all human strivings, and had to be maintained inside caves. The souls of the dead were thought to be the most malevolent of all spirits, and were held within the deepest parts of the cave. In Greek mythology this also holds true, according the legend in which Cronus was placed in a cave in the deepest part of the underworld. This was done by Zeus and his siblings after waging war against their father for swallowing them at birth for fear that they might overthrow him. Incidently, Zeus was raised in a cave after Rhea hid him from Cronus. For his punishment, Cronus was placed in Tartarus to prevent his return to earth, which would unbalance the system of authority established by Zeus. Beyond the shadows of the cave, however, this balanced system of power is nonexistent. It becomes a system both unstable and lawless, and survival as a guest in such a cave is only accomplished through the complete submission to the sovereign. In Odysseus encounter with the Cyclops, it is his disregard for Polyphemos authority that costs him the lives of several companions, and ultimately a ten year delay on his return home. The land of the Cyclops epitomizes darkness, chaos, and abandonment; where the only law exists past the entrance of the cave. From the islands shore a "high wall of...boulders"2 can be seen encircling each cave. Clearly impossible of being accomplished by mortals, massive walls of similar description found standing after the Persian Wars were also thought by ancient Greeks to be the work of the Cyclops. Unfamiliar to this system of power, Odysseus disregards these laws and enters the cave without an invitation. For this reason, Polyphemos implicates his own punishment onto the trespassers, and kills six men. In order to escape the wrath of the Cyclops, Odysseus eventually blinds him, an offense which falls under the jurisdiction of Poseidon, and for which he ultimately pays throughout his wanderings. The uncontrollable winds next direct Odysseus through a narrow strait outlined by rocks and cliffs through which he must pass to return home. On these cliffs which stand opposite each other lurk Scylla and Charybdis, one side "reach[ing] up into...heaven"3 and the other not quite as high. Scylla, a creature with twelve feet and six necks, resides in a cave upon this high cliff and devours sailors from fleeting ships. Across the stream of water dwells Charybdis, a dreadful whirlpool beneath a fig tree. Three times daily the maelstrom forms, and shipwrecks passing vessels. In the "Odyssey," Odysseus and his crew encounter these two sea

Sunday, March 1, 2020

17 SAT Hacks to Help You Ace the Exam

17 SAT Hacks to Help You Ace the Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Standardized tests have a reputation for presenting questions in formats that are tricky and confusing. Wouldn't it be great if there was a way to get past all that and take a shortcut to the correct answer? This article provides expert SAT hacks to help you solve SAT questions that might otherwise leave you stumped! Can You Actually â€Å"Hack† the SAT? Well, yes and no. Quick tidbits of advice like the ones in this articlecan prevent you from squandering your potential and teach you how to work with the test to earn the best score possible. However, you can’t rely on shortcuts to arrive at an excellent score if you’re missing knowledge that is critical for understanding essential aspects of the test. Be warned that these SAT hacks, though helpful,are no substitute for in-depth studying, especially if you struggle with the content at a fundamental level.If you think you need prep that addresses deeper weaknesses, you should check out our complete guide on how to study for the SAT. Overall SAT Hacks Here are some tricks you can use on any part of the SAT to help you get through the section and earn the most points possible. #1: Answer Every Question (No Matter What) The SAT doesn’t have a guessing penalty, so you should fill in an answer bubble for every question even if you have no clue what the correct response is.If you find yourself with a few questions left in the section and only 30 seconds on the clock, you should provide random answers for all of them.You never know if you’ll get lucky and answer one or two correctly, and even if you don’t, your score won’t be any lower than if you had left the questions blank. #2: Be Prepared for the Format Knowing what to expect is half the battle on the SAT.When you sit down to take the test, you want everything to look familiar so you can avoid mistakes triggered by stress. At the very least, you shouldreview the timing and structure of the exambefore test day.Taking practice tests with appropriate time constraints is the best thing you can do to alleviate confusion on this front. #3: Don’t Linger on Hard Questions Getting stuck on one question for too long can do serious damage to your performance on the SAT, especially considering the fact that there are only four sections.If you have no idea how to solve a math problem or can’t seem to settle on one choice for a writing or reading question, skip it and move on.You can come back to it after you make it through the rest of the section. #4: Practice Managing Anxiety Especially if you’re hoping to earn a really high score, coming across a problem that stumps you can kill your momentum on the test.To avoid this pitfall, you need to establish coping mechanisms to deal with these moments of doubt without letting them affect your overall performance. Mindfulness techniques are a great tool to have in your arsenal. Check out this article for more tips on how to reduce test anxiety! Imagine you're not taking the SAT. Instead, you're floating on a serene lake under a beautiful blue sky. You still have to stay awake, though. Seriously, don't fall asleep. SAT Reading Hacks Here are a few more SAT hacks that are specific to the content and format of the SAT Reading section. #5: Plan a Passage Reading Strategy Don’t jump into the test without deciding how you plan to approach passages on the Reading section.Are you more comfortable with skimming, or do you like to read the questions first and then go back and reference the passage to locate the answers? Complete apractice Reading section with appropriate time constraints so you can figure out what feels most comfortable for you and makes for the fewest struggles with time management. #6: Take Advantage of Find the Evidence Questions Find the evidence questions on the SAT are a gift because they help make the correct answers to the previous questions clearer.If none of the answer choices for a find the evidence question make sense in conjunction with your answer to the previous question, this should prompt you to double-check your reasoning.These questions remind you that you need to choose answers to Reading questions based on concrete statements made in the passage.If you made any unfounded assumptions, find the evidence questions will alert you to your mistakes. #7: Engage With the Content It’s much easier to get through the Reading section if you develop an interest in what the passages have to say.You’ll also retain more information from the passage when you move onto the questions. To get yourself interested, envision a scenario in which it's absolutely critical for you to remember what the passage says so you can explain it to other people. Imagine that you'll be presenting the information in the passage to another group of students after you finish reading it. "Notice anything different about me? Teehee" Denise, I accept that love is love, but you just met the SAT Reading section a week ago. YOU'VE BEEN HURT TOO MANY TIMES. SAT Writing Hacks These hacks will give you some insight into the way Writing questions work and how you can answer them more efficiently. #8: When in Doubt, Choose the Most Concise Answer The shortest answer is often the best answer on the Writing section because good writing consists of saying what needs to be said without any unnecessary fluff.Super wordy answers are usually not the ones you want.Of course, this doesn’t hold true for every single question, but it’s a solid rule of thumb if you’re stuck. #9: NO CHANGE Answers Are Just Like Other Choices Often, NO CHANGE answers are wrongfully viewed as more likely or less likely options than other answer choices in the Writing section. In fact, they’re just as likely to be correct as any of the alternative options. Don’t be afraid to pick NO CHANGE if you’ve double checked your reasoning and determined that it’s the correct choice. #10: Get Rid of Duplicate Answers Sometimes, questions on the Writing section will have answer choices that are so similar to one another that choosing one over the other wouldn’t make any functional difference in the sentence structure. Thismeans you can get rid of two choices in one fell swoop.If they’re essentially the same answers, then neither of them is unique enough to be the correct choice.Here's an example: In this case, C and D are functionally the same answers. They both indicate that the author is about to make a statement that goes against what was said in the previous sentence or sentences. Both C and D can be eliminated (the answer is NO CHANGE for this question). Sometimes answer options are just two halves of the same bad berry. This strawberry actually looks really good though. SAT Math Hacks The SAT has two Math sections, one taken without the use of a calculator and one taken with the use of a calculator.On both of these sections, you can use the following SAT hacksto improve your performance. #: Don’t Ignore Diagrams In many cases, the test will provide a diagram to help illustrate a math problem.These diagrams exist for your benefit, so make sure you pay attention to all the information they give you.Does your answer mesh with the way the diagram looks?If you’re asked to find a dimension of a shape, make sure the relative sizes make sense. Your final answer shouldn’t seem out of whack with what the diagram is telling you. #12: Know the Formulas Although the SAT does provide important formulas at the beginning of each of the Math sections, you’ll be a much more efficient test-taker if you have the formulas memorized.It's a waste of time to keep flipping back to the beginning of the section whenever you think you need a formula to solve a problem. For studying purposes, here'sa list of all the formulas you might need for the SAT Math section. #13: Underline Your Goal To keep yourself on track in the Math section, underline the value that you need to find (and circle it in the diagram if applicable).It's frustrating to confidently solve a math problem and later realize that you had to take your calculations one step further to actually get the answer the question wanted. In many cases, the wrong answers will be answers that you might get if you didn’t complete the solution process or solved for the incorrect quantity. #14: Plug in Answers If you have no idea how to solve a math problem, one way to get around that is just toplug in the answer choicesuntil you find the correct solution.This oftentakes longer than solving aproblem with algebra, but if you have time, it can be a useful strategy. Plugs, not drugs. This is probably a t-shirt by now, right? SAT Essay Hacks The essay is optional on the SAT, but many colleges still require it. Hereare some ways you can improve the quality of your essay with minimal effort. #15: Provide a Clear Thesis The essay graders are looking for an easy way to interpret your essay and understand the points you’re making.The best way to tap into this is to write a strong thesis that falls at the end of the introductory paragraph.Reread the central claim of the passage that’s described in the prompt, and transpose it into your thesis statement. Make sure you sketch out the structure of your essay in your thesis by listing three examples of major techniques the author uses to support his or her argument. #16: Write a Good Intro and Conclusion The introductory and concluding paragraphs are extremely important because graders typically pay the most attention to these parts of your essay.The introduction gives graders a preview of the quality of the rest of the essay and the way you’ll structure your ideas.It also contains your thesis, which is the most critical sentence in the entire essay and is what ties all of your points together. #17: Write More Than One Page Try to make your essay around two pages long.The graders don’t have a specific quota for the number of words they want to see, but they expect you to provide a response that fully addresses the most important components of the author’s argument.It’s almost impossible to do this if your response only takes up one page.Consider whether you’ve really explained what’s going on in the passage, and if necessary add more evidence to make your essay complete. Also, make sure your writing is legible. If you bring a quill to the test, expect some backlash. Conclusion: How to Hack the SAT "Hacking" the SAT is possible to an extent, but you need to understand the content fairly well before you can employ most of these tips successfully. To recap, here's a list of all the SAT hacks listed in the article organized by section: Overall Answer every question Be prepared for the format Don't linger on hard questions Learn to manage anxiety Reading Develop a passage reading strategy Use find the evidence questions to your advantage Engage with the content Writing Choose the most concise answer Remember that NO CHANGE answers are no more or less common than other options Eliminate duplicate answer options Math Don't ignore the diagrams Underline your goal Know the formulas Plug in answer options Essay Provide a clear thesis Write a strong introduction and conclusion Write at least two pages If you follow all these pieces of advice and combine them with in-depth studying, you'll be well on your way to an awesome score on the SAT! What's Next? If you think you need more structured guidance in your studying for the SAT, check out our list of the best prep books released this year. Khan Academy now provides free SAT prep services. Learn more abouthow it works and how to get the most out of these resources. There are also other ways to practice for the SAT online that you may not know about. Read all about the best websites to use for SAT prep! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by SAT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today:

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Museums are catalysts for regeneration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Museums are catalysts for regeneration - Essay Example They are able to connect the past with the present, serve as reminders of a historic past, and provide a link between the old generation and the new one. They enable people to explore collections for inspiration, enjoyment, and learning. Investing in cultural projects such as museums has been the task of tourism, which is both indispensable and necessary. Likewise, urban development strategy has been the investment in cultural projects such as iconic museums and arts centers intended to enhance city image alongside catalyzing private sector participation and attracting tourists (Grodach 2008). Museums possess educational and cultural mandates, which are being transformed as institutions continuously play an increasingly important part in economic development and tourism promotion strategies (Tufts and Milne 1999). Museums are concerned with not only its traditional public mandate, but also with its ability to enhance consumption experiences while contributing to a diversified tourism product. The museum as a catalyst for cultural landscape regeneration is seen in its expansion in variety as well as explosion in popularity over the last decades, in which marked change in its role in society is significantly observed (Falk and Dierking 2002). In the past, the museum was oriented primarily towards research and collection. Today, it is increasingly viewed as an institution for public learning and has placed an emphasis on education – a task that it never did in the past (Falk and Dierking 2002). The issue of educating the public did not arise in the past and visits then were conducted privately. It must also be noted that, museums used to be for public collections alone, shared with others selectively by the curator. Although for many, the museum remains to hold a secondary function, it was observed that over time, its role as a public asset has become increasingly important (Falk and Dierking 2002). A quarter of century ago, most

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Negative Causes, effects and sides of Onechild law in China Research Paper

The Negative Causes, effects and sides of Onechild law in China - Research Paper Example cts Negative Population Implications Negative Economic Effects ‘Little emperor syndrome’ – kids spoilt, lack social skills Increased pressure on kids to get good qualifications, well paid jobs, provide for parents in old age Human rights issues and abuses – shouldn’t everyone have the right to have as many kids as they want? Also looking at abuses, e.g. forced sterilisation, abortions, Imbalanced gender ratio = 119.2 boys for every 100 girls – due to abortions of girl pregnancies, abandoning girl babies. Also created ‘bride shortage’ with 10% more men in population than women Current fertility decline now stands at 1.47, below replacement fertility level of 2.1 kids Rapid aging population; Currently 10.5% of population over 65 (was 7.6% 2 decades ago) Set to grow to 15% in 2015, 20% by 2025 and 35% by 2050 4-2-1 problem of supporting elderly relatives – financial problems 1.34 billion Yuan in 1990 spent on government alloca tion for birth control programmes, grew to 4.82billion Yuan by 1998, still increasing now Rural consequences of only having 1 kid - loss of income on farm, labour needed to work on farm/ in agriculture Process Style Outline Negative Effects of China’s One Child Policy Social Effects ‘little emperor syndrome’ Over reliance on children from one child families Human rights violations Effects on China’s Population Structure Gender imbalance ratio – fewer girls – boys valued more, baby girl infant mortality Fertility levels fallen below replacement levels Rapidly aging population Economic Effects Family cost/consequence of only having one child State financial and political costs of administering policy Rural populations – need more kids to help out on farm, agriculture, etc Key Underline Thesis Statement Three decades after its implementation, there is a growing concern amongst researchers and citizens that China’s One Child Policy is having negative effects on Chinese society, its economy and future population trends. It is the aim of this report to discuss the consequences of such an unprecedented policy. ‘China’s One Child Policy was introduced in 1979 by the People’s Republic of China’ (Rosenberg, 2011). It was initially designed as a temporary measure to slow population growth at the start of the Chinese economic reforms (Feng, 2005). This was because China’s population had almost doubled from 563 million in 1950, to one billion by 1980 (Rosenberg, 2010). The policy has resulted in 90% of urban and 60% of rural children having no siblings (Chen, 2000) and China now has one of the lowest fertility rates (1.47 children per couple) in the world (Feng, 2005). According to Li et al (2005), ‘China’s One Child Policy is the largest and most extreme social experiment in population growth control via government intervention in human reproduction history’. Howev er, three decades after its implementation, there is a growing concern amongst researchers and citizens as to the negative effects such a policy has had on Chinese society, its economy and future population structure. It is the aim of this report to discuss the consequences of such an unprecedented policy. There are many negative consequences of China’s One Child Policy relating to the social structure of Chinese society. Chen (2000) believes that ‘

Friday, January 24, 2020

Hazard Mitigation Planning Essay -- Natural Disasters

Executive summary Hazard mitigation planning is an approach aimed at ascertaining ways to reduce the effects, deaths and damage to property that might result in the occurrence of a natural of man-made hazard. Hurricanes are among the costliest and the most destructive of natural disasters. Since 1995, the United States has witnessed more intense activities by hurricanes with Mobile County in Alabama experiencing hurricane Ivan and hurricane Dennis in 2004 and 2005 (Link, 2010). In 2005, Hurricane Katrina was the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes to have hit the United States and was rated category three in Mobile County (Marchi, 2007). The response to the disaster was poor owing to the lack of proper disaster preparedness as well as hazard mitigation planning. The very possibility of a hurricane hitting Alabama in the near future-within which the County of Mobile is located- appears as a near certainty going by past occurrences. The authorities as well as the community in Mobile County need to be more prepared for disasters by instituting hazard mitigation measures. These measures should be actualized through an effort by the County authorities in conjunction with the major s takeholders to put together a team that will comprehensively analyze hurricane Katrina and other past hurricanes affecting Mobile County. The Hurricane mitigation plan for the city of Mobile sets out the available resources and important information that would assist the community in reducingthe effects of a hurricane that might occur in future. The plan concentrates on measures and actions that can be put in place to reduce the effects of a hurricane. It covers an assessment of risk, sets out a strategy for minimizing the effects, and present... ... Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans. Ocean Engineering, 37(1), 4-12. Marchi, B. D. (2007). Not Just a matter of Knowledge: The Katrina Debacle. Environmental Hazards, 7(2), 141-149. Rodiek J. (2007). Landscape Planning in Hazardous Zones, Lessons from Hurricane Katrina, August 2005. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79(1), 1-4. Sadowski N. & Sutter D. (2008). Mitigation Motivated by Past Experience: Prior Hurricanes and Damages. Ocean and Coastal Management, 51(4), 303-313. Waugh, W. (2006). Shelter from the Storm: Repairing the National Emergency Management System after Hurricane Katrina. Michigan City: SAGE Publications. Yarnal B. (2007). Vulnerability and all that Jazz: Addressing Vulnerability in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Technology in Society, 29(2), 249-255. Forren J. (2005). Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Peri Anesthesia Nursing, 20(5), 303-304.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate Essay

Introduction One of the most important theoretical constructs in public administration is the politics-administration dichotomy. For more than a century, the politicsadministration dichotomy has been one of the most disreputable Issues in the field of public administration. The politics-administration dichotomy has had a strange history in public administration. It expands and contracts, rises and falls, but never to go away (Svara & Overeem, 2006: 121).At the heart of the public administration is relationship between administrators, on one hand, and politicians and the public on the other hand. The nature of that relationship and the proper role of political leaders and administrators in the administrative and political process have been the subject of considerable debate. In importance of the politics and administration, Waldo (1987) wrote: Nothing is more central in thinking about public administration than the nature and interrelations of politics and administration. Nor are the nature and interrelations of politics and administration matters only for academic theorizing. What is more important in the day-today, year-to-year, decade-to-decade operation of government than the ways in which politics and administration are conceptualized, rationalized ,and related one to the other. 1 2 PH.D student of public administration, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. PH.D student of public administration, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 130 ADMINISTRAÃ… ¢IE ÅžI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ï€ ´ 17/2011 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate In this article we review history of the politics-administration dichotomy in five section. First, we examine classical conceptualizations of relationship between politics and administration in early author’s notes such as Wilson, Goodnow and Weber. We then argue that how the dichotomy model rise after founders by the scientific management and the principles of administration Movements. Then, we describe relationship between politics and administration after scientific management that in this time the politics-administration dichotomy rejected and emphasized on administrators policymaking role, specially under the New public administration (NPA).In next section we contend that how in 80 and 90 decades insisted on separation of policy and administration by the New Public Management (NPM) and the Reinventing Government (RG) Movements. In final section, we review new trends and views on debate that introduce the complementarily model of politics and administration. 1. Early views about the politics and administration relationship: Wilson, Goodnow and Weber Although the politics-administration dichotomy was not current as a theoretical construct until the late 1940s when it first became an important issue in the literature of public administration, most scholars now trace it to Woodrow Wilson. Wilson’s essay (1887) with title of â€Å"The Study of Administration† was not cited for many years after publication, but it is an exemplar of an stream of reformist thinking about government in the late nineteenth century. Wilson intended to shield administration from political interference, He wrote: The field of administration is a field of business. It is removed from the hurry and strife of politics†¦. Administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics. Administrative questions are not political questions. Although politics sets the tasks for administration, it should not be suffered to manipulate its offices (Wilson, 1887: 18). Wilson was concerned with both the corrupting and politicizing interference of party organizations in administrative affairs (Stillman, 1973). He was critical of the way Congress handled core legislative functions. He stated that Congress policy making was haphazard and its oversight was weak. When Wilson suggested the clearer differentiation of politics and administration, he was seeking to strengthen and redirect the former while protecting the latter (Svara, 1998: 52). In The Study of Administration, Wilson explained the division of functions of Government as follows: Public administration is detailed and systematic execution of public law†¦but the general laws†¦are obviously outside of and above administration. The broad plans of governmental action are not administrative; the detailed execution of such plans is administrative (Wilson, 1966: 372). ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ï€ ´ 17/2011 131 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate However, Wilson originally considered politics and administration as independent, but later embraced version of the dichotomy, which assumed that politics and administration interact to improve the organic state (Martin, 1988).In this time Wilson asserted that administrators would directly interpret and respond to public opinion. Therefore, they should be involved in the policy process and elected officials should be involved in the administrative process (Wilson, 1966: 375). Wilson’s change of mind can be explained that On the one hand, He admired the administration of European countries and proposed learning from them, which would not have been possible unless administration was distinctly separate from politics. On the other hand, his ultimate concern was to promote democracy, for he believed that the function of administration was to rescue democracy from its own excesses (Yang & Holzer, 2005: 113-4). Miewald (1984: 25-6) contend that this view of administrators was even clearer in Wilson’s later lectures that stated the real function of administration is not merely ministerial, but adaptive, guiding, discretionary. It must accommodate and realize the law in practice. In Miewald’s view, such administrators also were politicians and they must have the freedom to make ethical decisions. Van Riper (1984: 209) asserted that Wilson can not be blame or give credit for originating the dichotomy. In his view, Wilson like some of his contemporaries, simply wanted to advance the partisan (not political) neutrality of the civil service. Svara (1998: 52) argue that Wilson’s view of the administrative function was broad and not consistent with the dichotomy model as it came to be articulated later. He refer to this Wilson’s note that large powers and unhampered discretion seem to me the indispensable conditions of responsibility for administrators. The European version of the dichotomy was accepted by Frank Goodnow. In his book â€Å"Politics and Administration† (1900), Goodnow attacked to the executive, legislative, and judicial functions as three basic functions of government. Instead, he argued, there were two basic functions of government: the expression of the popular will and the execution of that will. The three traditional powers were derived from the two functions, and each of the three branches of government combined in different measure both the expression and the execution of the popular will. Goodnow argued that the function of politics was to express the state’s will and the function of administration was to execute the state’s will. He contented that it was analytically possible to separate administration from politics, but practically impossible toad the two functions to one branch of government (Goodnow, 1900: 9-13). Goodnow argued that certain aspects of administration were harmed by politics and should have been shielded from it. He argued: â€Å"political control over administrative functions is liable†¦to produce inefficient administration in that it makes administrative officers feel that what is demanded of them is not so much work that will improve their own department, as compliance with the behests of the political party† (Goodnow, 1900: 83). 132 ADMINISTRAÃ… ¢IE ÅžI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ï€ ´ 17/2011 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate Svara (1998: 53) believed that in Goodnow’s writing there is a continuity between the political and administrative spheres, not a separation of the two, except as it applies to insulating administrative staff from partisan political inference. Because of Goodnow and other scholars at this time were interested in strengthening the relationship between administrators and elected officials rather than separating them. In sum, It should be recognized that Wilson and Goodnow aimed to eliminate the spoils system by freeing administration from political intervention and establishing a merit system in its place. They particularly opposed political appointments and patronage (Caiden, 1984: 53-7; Fry, 1989: 1036; Rohr, 2003: xiii-xvii; Rosenbloom, 2008: 58). They were more concerned with the improvement of administrative practice than with establishing a theoretical Construct (Stillman, 1973: 586). In other word, the dichotomy was not merely an analytical device for them, but first of all a practical imperative. To Wilson and Goodnow politics bore too strong an influence on public administration. Their’s aim was to take politics out of administration (Fry,  1989: 1036-7). In early twentieth century, Weber also arrived to a dichotomy between politics and administration, but from the opposite direction of Wilson and Goodnow. Weber argued that politics are too weak to curb administrative power, and that is the danger of Beamtenherrschaft (government by functionaries) that treat government. Therefore, he insisted that it was essential that administration stay out of politics (Weber, 1919/1968: 28). In â€Å"Politikals Beruf† Weber draws a sharp line between administrators and politicians: According to his proper vocation, the genuine civil servant†¦should not engage in politics, but administer, above all impartially†¦. Hence, he shall precisely not do what the politician, the leader as well as his following, must always and necessarily do, namely, fight. For partisanship, fight, passion are stadium are the politician’s element. (Weber, 1919/1968: 27-8) According to Weber, in the political controversies public administrators should operate above all impartially and remain politically neutral. In sum, It should be said that in founder’ s views it was partisan politics they wanted to keep apart from public administration rather than politics per se (Van Riper, 1984: 209; Ranney, 1949). Overeem (2005: 317) contended that in it’s classical conceptualizations the dichotomy between politics and administration implied a deep concern about the political neutrality of administrators. Whether attempts were made to take politics out of administration, as in the case of Wilson and Goodnow, or the other way around, as in the case of Weber, the aim was always to render administration impartial, an outsider to political controversy. ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ï€ ´ 17/2011 133 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate 2. Toward the dichotomy: raise of the politics-administration dichotomy concept after founders  Yang and Holzer (2005: 114) believed that in deciphering Wilson and Goodnow, practitioners and academicians incorporated their own beliefs and reconstructed (or distorted) the two authors’ intentions. This misreading, they argued, is no surprise because in light of the Progressive context Openness to the separation of administration from politics was necessary if public administration was to emerge as an autonomous field, an urgent and legitimate attitude at a time when politics perversely intruded into administration, as exemplified by the spoils system. There is agreement that the idea of separation between politics and administration (Dichotomy) diverged from the earlier approaches by Wilson and Goodnow. Van Riper (1984: 209) argue that Wilson and Goodnow’s ideas do not correspond to a dichotomy. Waldo (1948: 108), Appleby (1949: 16), Golembiewski (1977: 9), and Caiden (1984: 60) also have same views. Rabin and Bowman (1984: 4) content that the distinction between politics and administration identified by Wilson and Goodnow had been converted by thirties authors into a dichotomy. Martin demonstrates the thinking of the thirties as follows: In the atmosphere provided by scientific management, a mechanistic concept of public administration came to prevail widely and in important circles. Administration was separated severely from the legislative body†¦. Politics was anathema-not the politics practiced by administrators, but the politics of the politicians (1952: 667). According to Caiden (1984: 60-1), in the thirties, there was a narrower conception of administration as being the management of organizations without regard to purpose, persons, or objectives, that is a generic science of management. Because of the purpose and methods of the two spheres were different, not only could administration be taken out of politics, but politics could be taken out of administration. Thus, the dichotomy model and the scientific practice of administration became the dominant modes of inquiry in this time. Demir and Nyhan (2008: 83) note that the politics-administration dichotomy sought to minimize politics in public administration by prescribing expertise, neutrality, and hierarchy. This values more than of all was insisted in the thirties. Van Riper (1984: 209-10) also argued that  between, 1910 and 1950, there did in the literature and practice of public administration a kind of distance between politics and administration. The need for a sharp division was justified to permit scientific methods to be established, and these methods both closed off administration to the untrained politician and at the same time made the administrator an expert who was above politics. In Gulick’s view, the politics and administration were differentiated not in terms of principle, but in terms of specialization and the division of labor. He noted: The reason for separating politics from administration is not that their combination is a violation of a principle of government. The 134 ADMINISTRAÃ… ¢IE ÅžI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ï€ ´ 17/2011 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate reason for insisting that the elected legislative and executive officials shall not interfere with the details of administration, and that the rank and file of the permanent administrators shall be permanent and skilled and shall not meddle with politics, is that this division of work makes use of specialization and appears to give better results than a system where such a differentiation does not exist. (cited by Waldo, 1948: 124) Summarizing such views, It should be said that the dichotomy model was not a direct idea identified by founders of public administration but a transformation of those ideas to make them part of the mechanistic approach that dominated in the twenties and thirties. The idea of strict separation (dichotomy model) was part of scientific management and the principles of administration that abandoned starting 1940 and replaced by ideas that emphasized interaction between politics and administration. 3. Interaction between policy and administration Although in the thirties some of authors such as Gaus, White, and Dimock had been arguing that administrators should have a role in policymaking, but During the 1940s the dichotomy dominated the field of public administration.  In the late 1940s and early 1950s, The politics-administration Dichotomy was increasingly criticized, came under attack and was rejected by many authors. Waldo (1948: 128) reviewed the extensive literature of the issue and concluded that any simple division of government into politics and administration is inadequate. He noted: As the 1930s advanced, doubt and dissent increased. In the 1940s refutation and repudiation came to the fore. By the 1950s it had become common to refer to the politics administration dichotomy as an outworn if not ludicrous creed (1987: 93).  We can see the most criticism in Appleby’s work. In â€Å"Policy and Administration† (1949), Appleby identified politics as everything having to do with the government and everything the government does. Thus, he concluded, administration could indeed not be no part of it (1949: 3). In Appleby’s view, it is impossible to draw a meaningful institutional distinction between politics or policy and administration. Any issue dealt with in the hierarchy of government is regarded as policy by those who operate below the level at which it is settled, and as administration by those operating above that level. If an issue becomes more controversial, it will rise in the hierarchy and, thus, will be seen as policy by a greater number of functionaries and as administration by a smaller number of functionaries. Appleby noted that in the perspective of an outside observer or the public administration theorist, policy and administration are treated together at every level (1949: 22). Thus, whether an issue is policy or administration becomes completely relative; policy and administration are only two sides of the same coin, ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ï€ ´ 17/2011 135 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate and there is no use in speaking about them as two distinct governmental functions. Appleby concluded that public administration is not autonomous, exclusive or isolated but is policy making nonetheless (1949: 170). He also  did draw a horizontal line between partisan politics and other forms of politics: Everything having to do with the government and everything the government does is political, for politics is the art and science of government. But in terms of mass, only a small part of politics is partisan (1949: 153).  In the 1960sthe role of administrators in policy-making process emphasized because of governments was increasingly troubled by complex social, economic, and security problems such as civil rights and poverty. This tendency was string then din the 1970s, when the Vietnam War, Watergate, and the energy crisis all had an impact on the balance between politics and administration. Because of the political nature of administration was highlighted, and the dichotomy denounced as false, many believed that administrators should actively apply their personal values and judgments to policy-making (Yang & Holzer, 2005: 116).One of reasons for rejecting separation of politics-administration was due ethical considerations that were evident in the New Public Administration (NPA). Frederickson (1976), with aware of the need of public organizations to administrative values such as efficiency and economy, emphasized that values such as equity, ethics, responsiveness, participation, and citizenship should be considered. He argued that this democratic values should be executed by administrators as responsible individuals. Administrators for the first time were asked to utilize their personal value judgments in public decision-making. Therefore, politics and administration could not to be separate of each other. 4. Return to the dichotomy: separation of policy and administration Some of authors believe that in the 1980s observe a return to the dichotomy with emphasize on privatization, decentralization and productivity (Uveges & Keller, 1997).This return continued in the 1990s under the Reinventing Government and the New Public Management (NPM) Movements. The Reinventing Government by emphasize on need to change administrator’s role from rowing to steering reincarnated the dichotomy in five ways: distinguishing between policy and management, extending it from the inner workings of government to the body politic, freeing administration from political controls in the form of red tape, redefining accountability, and specifying congressional action as politics and presidential action as management (Carroll, 1995).  Separation policymaking of policy-implementation also supported by the New Public Management. Hughes, one of the NPM proponents, notes: Public organizations do things; governments now want to know what they do; how well they do it; who is in charge and taking responsibility for results. The primary way of achieving this is to let the manager manage. Meaning that senior manager would themselves 136 ADMINISTRAÃ… ¢IE ÅžI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ï€ ´ 17/2011 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate be responsible for the achievement of results rather than being an administrator†¦. Disaggregate anion means splitting large department into different parts by setting up agencies to deliver services for a small policy department†¦. In some ways disaggregation could be seen as a reversion to the ideas of Woodrow Wilson with an organizational split between policy and administration in the division of policy departments and agencies (Hughes, 2003: 62-5). According to Christensen and Laegreid (2001: 96-101)The economic way of thinking in NPM points to an almost generally accepted axiom that it is more efficient to separate political and administrative functions than them integrated, as traditionally has been the case in most countries. The argument is that a division between these functions makes it clearer that they are different functions with different actors that is the politicians should set the goals and the civil servants implement the policies. They believed that One argument in favour of a sharper division between politics and administration is that an integrated solution makes politicians vulnerable to influence and pressure from civil servants, that civil servants threaten to invade the political sphere and that a stricer separation of functions makes it easier to control the civil service. The  Slogan let the managers manage, meaning discretion for managers and boards and not too much daily interference from the political leaders. The implication of this slogan is that chief executives are better at managing and therefore should be given the discretion and opportunity to do so, thereby reducing the burden on the political leadership and, through a sharp division between politics and administration, increase political control. Christensen and Laegreid argued that through devolution and contracting, NPM has sought to separate policy-making more clearly from policy administration and implementation. Policy –makers make policy and then delegate its implementation to managers and hold them accountable by contract. 5. Reconceptualization of dichotomy: two dichotomies In recent two decades, some of authors have critic to the classical conceptualization of the politics-administration dichotomy and attempt to reconceptualize it. Montjoy and Watson (1995: 232-3) Argue that some of Wilson’s statements certainly do advocate a separation of politics and administration, but what would mean in practice depends upon the definitions of the key terms. They point out that Wilson actually dealt with two different types of politics, one focused on partisanship and patronage, the other on policy making. Wilson Clearly wished to separate patronage politics from administration and Whether he advocated a dichotomy of policy making and administration is another issue. Regardless of what he wrote in The Study of Administration, the implications of his later work are unavoidable: administrators were politicians; they must have the freedom to make ethical decisions. ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ï€ ´ 17/2011 137 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate Montjoy and Watson believe that much of the confusion about politics and administration comes from Goodnow. They ask that was Goodnow’s dichotomy between politics and administration or between policy making and  administration, or were politics and policy making interchangeable for him? They offer an interpretation of Goodnow’s work based on the assumption of two dichotomies: a conceptual dichotomy between policy and administration and an institutional dichotomy between politics and administration. Montjoy and Watson assert that Goodnow used both â€Å"politics† and â€Å"policy† to refer to the expression of the popular will and â€Å"administration† to refer to the execution of that will. They ask Does politics mean patronage or does it mean policy making, or are the three concepts indistinguishable? They argue that the answer may lie in the definition of politics that Goodnow offers in the beginning of Politics and Administration: The act or vocation of guiding or influencing the policy of a government through the organization of a party among its citizens-including, therefore, not only the ethics of government, but more especially, and often to the exclusion of ethical principles, the art of influencing public opinion, attracting and marshalling voters, and obtaining and distributing public patronage, so far as the possession of offices may depend upon the political opinions or political services of individuals (Goodnow, 1900: 19). Montjoy and Watson content that this statement yields two important points. First, politics is definition ally limited to that part of the policy-making process, the act or vocation of guiding or influencing the policy of a government, which is accomplished through a particular method, the organization of a party among its citizens. Second, the application of that method explicitly includes patronage. They conceive of Goodnow’s expression of the public will as the entire policy-making process, including elections. Politics is that part of the process related to political parties. Therefore, they state, we are left with two dichotomies. The first is conceptual, dividing the functions of government into the expression of a will and the execution of that will. The second is operational, the doctrine that the filling of administrative offices (those primarily concerned with execution of the will) should not be used by candidates to attract support in the contest for electoral offices. Another argument about reconceptualization of the politics-administration dichotomy has been done by Overeem. Overeem (2005: 318-22) draw adisti nction between two types of politics: â€Å"partisan politics† and â€Å"policy politics† and state that in these two different types of politics, the stakes are different. In â€Å"partisan politics† the stakes are the powers to make decisions (votes and offices), whereas in â€Å"policy politics† the stakes are the contents of those decisions. Public administrators can have an involvement in the latter, but not in the former. In brief, public administrators cannot (and should not) be excluded from the kind of politics that is inherent to policy-making, but they can (and should) be excluded from politics that has a more partisan character. Overeem explain that in its mid-twentieth century reconceptualization, the politics-administration dichotomy was not so much 138 ADMINISTRAÃ… ¢IE ÅžI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ï€ ´ 17/2011 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate thickened in its intensity as it was broadened in its scope. The Dichotomy’s critics suggested that its intention had been to keep administration not merely out of (partisan) politics, but out of the making of policy as well. Often, the dichotomy’s critics took what had been conceptualized as a contrast between politics and administration for the parallel, alternative, and occasionally synonymous dichotomy between policy and administration. Indeed, the two dichotomies were more and more taken as synonyms. Overeem conclude that public administration contrasts with two dichotomy: 1) politics-administration dichotomy and 2) policyadministration dichotomy. He assert that later should be rejected but former should be accepted. 6. New trends: complementarity of politics and administration We will finish our argument with focus on a new model about politics and administration relationship that named the Complementarity Model. Svara (2001: 179-80) explain that the complementarity Model of politics and administration is based on the premise that elected officials and administrators join together in the common pursuit of sound governance. Complementarity entails separate parts, but parts that come together in a mutually supportive way. Complementarity stresses interdependence along with distinct roles;  compliance along with independence; respect for political control along with a commitment to shape and implement policy in ways that promote the public interest; deference to elected incumbents along with adherence to the law and support for fair electoral competition; and appreciation of politics along with support for professional standards. Svara believe that Complementarity recognizes the interdependence and reciprocal influence between elected officials and administrators. Elected officials and administrators maintain distinct roles based on their unique perspectives and values and the differences in their formal positions, but the functions they perform necessarily overlap. The figure of bellow show different parts of Complementarity Model. The first part is the political dominance that results from high political control and low administrative independence is the condition that has been attacked by reformers from the Progressive Era to the present because of their concern for loss of administrative competence and the potential for political corruption. The second part is Bureaucratic autonomy that is feared by critics of the administrative state, who argue that administrators are self-controlling and advance agency interests rather than the public interest. In both situations, Svara explain, either the level of control or independence is extreme, and the key reciprocating value is not present: Politicians do not respect administrators, or administrators are not committed to accountability. The third part is the combination of low control and low independence, producing a â€Å"live and let live† attitude among officials. Svara believe that the dichotomy model, which is based on totally separate spheres, would logically fit in this category. ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ï€ ´ 17/2011 139 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate Elected Officials: degree of control Low High Stalemate or laissez-fair Political Dominance Low Complementarity Administrators: level of independence High Political respect administrative Competence and commitment Administrators are Committed to accountability and responsiveness Bureaucratic autonomy Figure1. Understanding the interaction between Politicians and Administrator (Svara, 2001, 180) The final part that is the largest space in figure is the zone of complementarity. Svara argue that most interactions among officials reflect  complementarity, and evidence from local governments in 14 countries supports this generalization. Although in earlier times there was greater emphasis on subordination of administrators linked to greater reliance on hierarchy as an organizational principle, interdependence and reciprocal influence are common and longstanding. A condition that presumably was common earlier in the century, high accountability and moderate independence, would fit in the upper-left corner of the complementarity quadrant, whereas recent experience with moderate control and extensive administrative initiative would be in the lower-right corner. Svara assert that Complementarity Model entails ongoing interaction, reciprocal influence, and mutual deference between elected officials and administrators. Administrators help to shape policy, and they give it specific content and meaning in the process of implementation. Elected officials oversee implementation, probe specific complaints about poor performance, and attempt to correct problems with performance through fine-tuning. Conclusions ` The purpose of this article was to review literature of the politicsadministration dichotomy. In order to, the author’s view about issue on different time periods was argued. The issue of politics and administration is one of the most important issues in public administration as Denhardt introduce dates one of the five main issues in public administration (Denhardt & Baker, 2007: 121). Therefore, that is not to be false if we say that the politics-administration dichotomy is the important part of the public administration identity. Thus, awareness of its history can be effective in properly understand the field of public administration and rightly recognition its problems. There are a number of reasons why the dichotomy idea has persisted. It is convenient to explain the division of roles in terms of total separation because it is 140 ADMINISTRAÃ… ¢IE ÅžI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC ï€ ´ 17/2011 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate easier to explain than a model based on sharing roles, particularly since the separation model does not limit the actual policy contributions of administrators in practice. At the same time, the dichotomy idea shields administrators from scrutiny and serves the interests of elected officials who can pass responsibility for unpopular decisions to administrators (Peters, 1995: 177-8). In founders view of public administration, politics and administration should be separated. But, it must be notice that their intention was to remove political interferes of public administration practices. It can be say that founders never clearly rejected the role of public administrators in policy making. They simultaneously emphasized on separation and insulation of administrators from political interference, on one hand, and interaction and incorporation of administrative contributions in the design and the implementation of public policy, on the other hand. Wilson and Goodnow as founding fathers of the field never advocated the dichotomy attributed to them (Golembiewski, 1977; Rabin and Bowman, 1984: 4; Rohr, 1986: 31; Van Riper, 1984: 209-10), It was after them and under the scientific management and the principles of administration movements that separation policy-making of policyimplementation favored and accepted. Under this movements the strict version of separation was formed. After the classic public administration and under the new public administration approach and because of need to values such as equity, ethics, responsiveness, participation, and citizenship the role of administrators in policymaking was emphasized. In this time, Because of the political nature of administration was highlighted, and the dichotomy denounced as false, many believed that administrators should actively apply their personal values and judgments to policy-making. In 80 and 90 decades under the Reinventing Government and the New Public Management Movements observe a return to the dichotomy. Reinventing Government by introduce rowing and steering metaphor emphasized on Separation of policy-making and policy-implementation by freeing  administration from political controls and distinguishing between policy and management. NPM, also, through devolution and contracting has sought to separate policy-making more clearly from policy administration and implementation. Policy-makers make policy and then delegate its implementation to managers and hold them accountable by contract. Nowadays, it is widely regarded both unfeasible and undesirable to keep politics and administration apart and their relationship is presently depicted as complementary rather than dichotomous (Frederickson & Smith, 2003: 15-40; Riggs, 1987; Svara, 1998, 1999, and 2001; Svara & Brunet, 2003). Svarapresent the idea of complementarity as a conceptual framework that includes differentiation along with interaction as an alternative to the dichotomy. The Complementarity model is based on conditions for maintaining the distinction between politics and administration, while at the same time describing how the two are intermixed and prescribing values for preserving this complex relationship. ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT ï€ ´ 17/2011 141 Politics-Administration Dichotomy: A Century Debate References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. APPLEBY, P., 1949, Policy and Administration, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. CAIDEN, G. E., 1984, â€Å"In search of an apolitical science of American public administration†. In Politics and administration: Woodrow Wilson and American public administration Rabin, J. and Bowman, J. (Eds.), (pp. 51-76). New York: Marcel Dekker. CARROL, L.; JAMES, D., 1995, †The Rhetoric of Reform and Political Reality in the National Performance Review†. Public Administration Review, Volume 55: 302–312. CHRISTENSEN, T. and LÆGREID, P., 2001, New Public Management: The Transformation of Ideas and Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate. DEMIR, T and NYHAN, R.C., 2008, â€Å"The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: An Empirical Search for Correspondence Between Theory and Practice.† Public Administration Review, Volume 68:81 DENHARDT, R.B. and BAKER, D.L., 2007, â€Å"Five Great Issues in Organization Theory†, in Handbook of Public administration, Rabin, J., Hildreth, W.B. and Miller, G.J, Taylor and Francis Group, London and New York FREDERICKSON, H.G., 1976, â€Å"The Lineage of New Public Administration†, Administration and Society, Volume 8:149–175. FREDERICKSON, H.G. and SMITH, K. B., 2003, Public Administration Theory Primer, West view Press, Boulder, CO. FRY, B. R., 1989, Five great issues in the profession of public administration, In Handbook of public administration, Rabin,J., Hildreth, W. B, and Miller, G. J. (Eds) (1027-1064). New York: Marcel Dekker. GOLEMBIEWSKI, R. T., 1977, Public Administration as a Developing Discipline, New York: Marcel Dekker. GOODNOW, F. 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Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Public Debt And Political Changes Essay - 1517 Words

6.3Domestic Public Debt and Political Changes Figure 8 shows that domestic public debt has been aggravated since January revolution, as domestic public debt was 755.3 billion Egyptian pounds in 2010; and then increased to 2116.3billion Egyptian pounds in 2015. This means that domestic public debt has increased by 180% during period of revolutions. In spite the trend of domestic public debt before revolutions was positive; however, the change in domestic public debt was in average 77.2 billion Egyptian pounds during the time period (2006-2010); and then increased to 245.5 billion Egyptian pounds during the time period (2011-2015), with an increase of 218%. The only logical explanation for this significant inflation in domestic public debt is the occurrence of two successive revolutions in a short time period and their negative consequences on the political status in Egypt. A regression analysis between domestic public debt (as a dependent variable) and political risk sub-indicators (as explanatory variables) confirmed the validity of this suggested explanation. The analysis found a statistically significant negative relationship between domestic public debt and political stability and absence of violence ((R-Sq = 82.1% R-Sq(adj) = 80.5%,F statistic is 50.61 with p-value 0.000). See Appendix 13. Figure 8.Development of domestic public debt in Egypt Source: The Egyptian Cabinet, Information and Decision Support Center. 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