Sunday, July 12, 2020

Advertisers Use Principles Of Visual Search And Attention To Increase

Advertisers Use Principles Of Visual Search And Attention To Increase Advertisers Use Principles Of Visual Search And Attention To Increase The Likelihood That People â€" Essay Example > Principles of visual search and attentionIntroductionVisual search refers to the use of one’s sense of perception to carefully look through the visible environment for a certain targeted feature or object among many other objects or features, for example, locating a particular model of a mobile phone on a display shelf. It involves the engagement of an individual’s sense of mental and visual perception to locate an item even without moving the eyes (Trick Enns, 1998). On the other hand selective attention refers to an individual’s ability to remain focused on a particular object even when faced with many other distracting objects while advertising is an art of attracting the attention of a targeted market in order to persuade them to purchase a certain item or service (Wesley McEntarffer, 2010). This paper will look at how advertisers use principles of visual search and attention to increase the chances that people notice their advertisement messages. Attention principles in AdvertisingAccording to Dukas (2002), attention is a cognitive process whereby one factor in the environment receives selective concentration while other factors are ignored. A good example of attention may involve carefully listening to what someone is saying in a room full of people while ignoring the conversation s of other people within the room (Dukas 2002). Advertising principles are mainly based on the psychological processes of attention, cognitive psychology and perception so as to draw consumers to the use of certain brands or products. In order to capture the interests of the viewers advertisers’ first goal is to focus on capturing the attention of consumers. Some of the ways that advertisers use to capture the attention of consumers is by showing strong visuals, bright colors and movements within the visual scenes. This approach is mainly based on the principal of attention control through orienting stimuli. For commercials, most advertisers prefer to use attracti ve models in trendy clothes in order to capture the attention of viewers. Soon as the attention of the viewer is drawn using these orienting stimuli, the advertisers then focuses on retaining the attention of the consumer (Roy, 2009). Visual imagery in advertisingThe art of advertising requires one to study the behaviour and perception of people in order to apply the proper principles that will draw the attention of the intended user on a long term. Therefore for one to win the attention of the targeted audience the message must be presented in a manner that it captures the logical and emotional meanings of the targeted recipient (Zaltaman 1995; Rossiter 1982). It must establish a deeper meaning and interest in the mind of the recipient. In order to achieve this, advertisers use the principles of visual research and attention to captivate the minds of their targeted audience and enhance the visual imagery of the targeted individuals. Visual imagery is a mental activity that enable s an individual to visualize a concept or idea. It triggers the release and processing of information in the working memory (Woodman et al 2001). With visual imagery an individual can be stimulated into responding to a certain event, object or feature without the actual object, event or feature being present at the time (Burns et al 1993). This is the real potential with visual imagery. It triggers the five physical senses that is sight, hear, taste, touch and smell. As a result advertisers use visual imagery to stimulate and attract the attention of consumers. It has the potential to bring into remembrance information that has been kept in the long term memory and present it into the working memory. In addition, images that are inbuilt or stored in the brain are more attached and relevant to an individual as they are being generated from the mental processes of the individual and are not as a result of an external factor. This means that the information is already stored in the l ong term memory of the individual and can therefore be easily brought into the working memory by stimulation, for example, rerunning an advertisement. However, excessive repetition of the advertisement may reduce the attention of the recipient by a considerable degree (Peiter Wedel 1999). Visual imagery has the capacity to generate or stimulate several senses at the same time and this provides an opportunity for the brain to process the information in more ways as more senses are involved. This improves the mental process thus providing a way in which advertisement can be effective by staying in the mind of the viewer even after the mental processing. Because images last longer in the mind of an individual it is safe to argue that such an approach to advertising will produce better results as the processing of the information is being drawn from the individual’s long term memory as compared to an approach that only triggers a limited response and engagement of the brain (Burns e t al 1993).

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Imperialism - an Irony - Shooting an Elephant - 1255 Words

Imperialism  ­ an irony. Imperialism is a no ­win situation: ââ€"  ââ€"  ââ€"  Throughout the short text we see Orwell as a character torn between two completely juxtaposed ideals: that in support of the oppressed and the colonial. We are barely halfway through the opening sentence when Orwell declares how he was â€Å"hated by large numbers of people† and we quickly learn of the immense anger he has towards his tormentors. Initially, we learn of Orwell’s personal experience of power and how he is â€Å"hated by large numbers of people†. ââ€"  We quickly see how much of a struggle it is for Orwell to endure the bitterness of the locals. ââ€"‹ ââ€"‹ ââ€"  Orwell paints the â€Å"sneering yellow faces of young men† and talks of the insults â€Å"hooted† at his†¦show more content†¦This metaphor is then extended to the idea of a puppet. We see this image of the crowd pulling at Orwell’s strings, physically moving his limbs for him and forcing him to act against his will. We see the nature of the pupett having no will or mind of it’s own, not ability to decide in it’s fate but instead purely reliant on those who control it suggesting Orwell’s ultimate dependance upon the Burmese in his decision making process. The idea of performance suggests a nature of â€Å"playing up† to the locals. It suggests that the colonials are adhering to some sort of stereotype, trying to keep up appearances, to match the expectations of the people. He suggests this idea of an illusion of control, that the colonials think they have free will, power yet in fact they are lead by their own stereotype: ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"   ââ€"‹ We again see the will of those people is a stronger force that the threat of Orwell’s weapon. We see the gun is ultimately futile and so too is Orwell’s power. â€Å"He wears a mask, and his face grows to fit it†. This metaphor really hammers home the idea of acting up to stereotype. The colonials, as colonials, feel they need to act in a particular way and thus their free will is impeded. They feel they must do what is â€Å"expected of them†. â€Å"A sahib has got to act like a Sahib† We see Orwell performs the role that is expected of him, but in pretending, in performance, heShow MoreRelatedShooting an Elephant840 Words   |  4 PagesSYMBOLISM, METAPHORS AND IRONY IN THIS ESSAY AND EXPLAIN HOW HE USES EACH OF THESE TO CONVEY HIS ARGUMENT OR MESSAGE In the extract, Shooting An Elephant Orwell conveys his message through the use of various persuasive tools. He wants the reader to identify when somebody assumes power. This technique is used to show that the powerful are also a captive to the will of people they control. Everyone involved in the situation becomes affected. In this instance, imperialism has a negative affect onRead MoreAnalysis of George Orwells Shooting an Elephant Essay example1050 Words   |  5 PagesTechnique Analysis of ‘Shooting an elephant’ Written by George Orwell Essay by Arthur Diennet In 1936, George Orwell published his short story ‘Shooting an elephant’ in an English magazine. Since then, it has been republished dozens of times and holds a place as a definitive anti-colonial piece of literature, in an era where the British Empire was at its peak and covered almost 1/3 of the Earth’s surface. George Orwell believed that â€Å"†¦imperialism was an evil thing...† and uses much themesRead MoreGeorge Orwells Style of Writing Essay example1038 Words   |  5 Pagescruelty. Soon after succeeding in gaining the readers sympathy by expressing the narrators feelings as an Anglo-Indian in Burma, Orwell shifts his focus on criticizing imperialism. In his second paragraph, the narrator overtly utters his criticism towards imperialism when he says I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing... I was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British.At this point, the reader can interpret that the narrator has sympathy forRead More George Orwells Writing Essay examples899 Words   |  4 PagesGeorge Orwells Writing George Orwell is best known for his fiction writing, particularly Animal Farm and 1984. In Shooting an Elephant he demonstrates his talent in non-fiction writing. Not everyone was familiar with the way in which the British Imperial rule worked and Orwell uses his rhetorical language to bring the readers of his essay into the immediate world that was that of an imperial officer. Orwell?s essay is written in the first person perspective. This was done deliberatelyRead MoreEssay about Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell1527 Words   |  7 PagesShooting an Elephant by George Orwell Few supervisors experience lack of respect and denunciation from workers because of their positions in a company. Supervisors take actions to preserve the image of authority before subordinates and from being ridiculed by their workers, even if the supervisors object these types of actions. The essay Shooting an Elephant relates to this situation. The author of this essay is George Orwell. The author talks about his work and personal experience that emphasizesRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 941 Words   |  4 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   George Orwell’s  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Shooting an Elephant† is a story about the experience of the narrator who was asked to shoot a wild elephant. He was a police officer who worked for British imperialists and killing the elephant would help him receive good judgement from the villagers in Burma. Orwell says that imperialism is evil and should be eliminated while others think that it is good for the public. The purpose of Orwell’s story is to show the audience that imperialism is harmful and not as good asRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Orwell Shooting An Elephant 1189 Words   |  5 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant†: Effect of Imperialism in Burma Imperialism is a state of mind, fueled by the arrogance of superiority that could be adopted by any nation irrespective of its geographical location in the world. 1. Evidence of the existence of empires dates back to the dawn of written history in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, where local leaders extended their realms by conquering other states and holding them, when possible, in a state of subjection and semi subjection. Imperialism was rebornRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s Shooting An Elephant 1233 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Shooting an Elephant† â€Å"Shooting an Elephant† is about the guilt of British colonialism that George Orwell faces as a sub-divisional police officer. Based on his experiences, he has seen the real wickedness of imperialism. In â€Å"Shooting an Elephant†, Orwell displays the evil of imperialism as harsh, belligerent, and provoking. First, Orwell encounters the harshness of imperialism. Furthermore, Orwell says, â€Å" the sneering yellow faces of young men†¦ the insults hooted me when I was at a safe distanceRead More Shooting an Elephant Essay1373 Words   |  6 Pagesessay, Shooting an Elephant, George Orwell illustrates his experiences as a British police officer, and reflects it to the nature of imperialism. He hates his job as a police officer in Moulmein because an â€Å"anti-European feeling was very bitter† due to British Empire’s dictatorship in Burma. Therefore, Orwell, a white man is being treated disrespectfully by the Burmese which allows him to hate his job and British Empire, the root of everything. However, the incident of shooting of an elephant givesRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Shooting An Elephant1165 Words   |  5 PagesIn George Orwell’s story ‘Shooting an Elephant’, insight is given into the life of an oppressor in the British Empire. Orwell, hav ing undergone a significant personal experience, illustrates his experience of imperialism and the resounding effects is has on the ethical conduct and ideals of man, not only of the oppressed but also in regards of the oppressor. Orwell’s ‘Shooting an Elephant’ attempts to convey the sacrifice of one’s morality in service of imperialism. Through the spread of the British

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dr. Clark s Biko Cry Freedom ( Bos Par - 1061 Words

Ten years after the death of Stephen Bantu Biko (1946-77), South Africa’s â€Å"Daily Dispatch† journalist, Donald Woods, wrote Biko: Cry Freedom (Bos par. 1). His book was subsequently adapted for film and produced by hollywood director: Richard Attenborough (Bos par.1). The film was released on the heels of South Africa’s nation-wide declaration of a â€Å"state of emergency† in 1986 (Clark and Worger xvi). Though some claim Attenborough’s film is a biographical look at the life, trial, and death of Biko, this claim strikes me as problematic. Told mainly from Wood’s perspective, the film touches on the formation of the South African Students’ Organization (SASO) under the co-leadership of Biko. Initially, viewers learn about Biko’s work with the Black Community Programmes (BCP), as illustrated in the scene where Biko gives a well-received speech at the illegal gathering for the Black People’s Convention (BPC) (Clark and Worger xx). It is only through Woods that the audience finds out that SASO gathered support from students fed up with the apartheid rule law-abiding National Union of South African Students (NUSAS). For his dedicated advocacy work, Biko is banned in 1973 as an attempt to silence and isolate him from his community. Frantz Fanon’s chapter, â€Å"Concerning violence† in The Wretched of the Earth (1961), speaks to the disappearance of individualism under colonial rule. Fanon indicates that the â€Å"colonialist bourgeoisie† thrusts the ideology upon the â€Å"native

Remaking Birmingham free essay sample

This essay focuses on the subjects of urban regeneration and sustainability in the I-JK. I shall start by exploring the true meanings of the two subjects and how they are connected with one another. The I-JK has many urban regeneration projects happening all the time and I have chosen to focus on the city of Birmingham and the Big City Plan. I am going to delve into the processes, objectives and outcomes of the project and come to my own conclusion as to whether urban regeneration in Birmingham is done in a sustainable way. Cities cover Just 2% of the worlds landmass, but more than 60% of the worlds opulation inhabit them, therefore urban regeneration is a massive global issue that needs to be fully understood and considered. What is urban regeneration? In short, urban regeneration is a combination of the processes that are undertaken in order to rejuvenate, and renew an urban place. One definition of urban regeneration is, a comprehensive and integrated vision and action which leads to the resolution of urban problems and which seeks to bring a lasting improvement in the economic, physical, social and environmental conditions of an area that has been subject to change. (Roberts 2000, p. 17) This definition of urban regeneration is one that is very widely understood. It means that when urban regeneration is done well it will bring change to many aspects of a town or city, from the economic to the environmental. In the I-JK, cities are hugely important for the economic function of the country and if the cities are not prosperous then the country will not have the best economy it can. Therefore urban regeneration is a tremendously important matter. There are many types of urban regeneration, five main ones that we focus on in the I-JK. First there is economic regeneration, which focuses on the income of the city, Job creation and employment for the residents of a given urban area and the employability of the residents themselves. Secondly there is social cultural regeneration. This type of urban regeneration is aimed at improving the quality of life for the residents of the area, bettering the quality of the housing, education and health services and also reducing the crime rate in an area. Another type of regeneration is physical environmental, which is concentrated on improving the natural and built environment of an urban area. Higher quality infrastructure and more green spaces are the aims of physical environmental urban regeneration. Fourthly there is communication regeneration and this is dedicated to improving the transport links within a town or city, which will in time have an impact on the other aspects of urban regeneration as well. The final main type of urban regeneration is governance, which is not an immediate topic when discussing urban regeneration. Governance is the way a settlement is run by the local council, the decisions they make and what impact they have on the town or city. If all of these main elements of urban regeneration are achieved, then the city will be completely revitalized. The residents will have an improved quality of life, new employment opportunities, and community participation would be available for people to enrich their lives. the UK sustainabili ty is a central topic, especially when linked witn urban regeneration. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987). Sustainability considers climate hange, energy consumption, land use and transport to name Just a few, how they affect the environment and the carbon footprint they create. Although cities are a danger to the natural environment, they play a hugely important role in the economic climate of the I-JK, which is why sustainability is such a central concept. What is a sustainable city? A question that many city planners ask themse lves when it comes to sustainable urban regeneration. A sustainable city is one that fills all of the requirements of both the economic climate and the residents without damaging the nvironment. It would be an attractive place to be and green spaces for nature and recreation would be actively integrated into the city environment. A good quality transport system that positively promotes pedestrian areas and cycling which, in time would lead to low pollution and noise levels, and local food consumption would all contribute to the sustainable city goal. Another element of a sustainable city that people are inclined to overlook is an efficient waste disposal system. If the waste is disposed of correctly and efficiently then the city would have a much more esthetically pleasing feel to it and the general manner of the people living and working in the settlement would be happier. Sustainable urban design is another element of an overall sustainable city. Design that considers all of the needs of the people using the space, makes good use of the local resources available, and makes the most of the natural ventilation and lighting opportunities, would be an efficient and sustainable building with long-term livability. Has the designer used renewable energy resources? Are the living and working spaces combined? What are the noise pollution levels? These are all uestions that we should be asking ourselves as designers when it comes to sustainable urban regeneration, and we must consider whether value for money is delivered at a small cost of design and construction. Birmingham is one of the biggest cities in the UK and has one of the youngest populations in Europe with 37% of the residents less than 24 years of age. It also has a hugely ethnic diverse population, the city winning the city of culture title in 2010. All of these factors have to be considered when talking about urban regeneration in Birmingham. Over the last decade the city has reinvented itself using the theme of new urbanism, to become a city that attracts tourism and investment from all over the globe. One of the major attractions of Birmingham today, the Bullring shopping centre, was the first indoor city shopping centre to be built in the I-JK. The Big City Plan is a 20 year, master plan that aims to develop Birmingham city centre into a world class place that will attract tourism and business from all over the world. The plan contemplates all aspects of the built environment of Birmingham, trom transport to heritage and hopes to create new residential and employment opportunities encouraging the diverse culture of the city. Some specific aims of the plan are, to generate over 50000 new employment opportunities, which will hopefully contribute E2. 1 billion to the economy of the city each year. The plan has the aim of developing a city centre that is focused on pedestrianism and cycling which will have a very positive effect on the carbon footprint of the city and noise pollution levels will drop. The plan also has the objective of redeveloping and creating 65000 square metres of public space, from parks and walkways to leisure parks. This type of revitalization will enhance the lives of the residents in the city of Birmingham itself. Over 5000 new homes are to be built in Birmingham that will have leisure and recreation opportunities close by, so as to attract more people to a better quality of life. Another specific aim of the master plan is to retain Birminghams heritage and cultural assets, an authentic city, of which Birmingham has many. The Black Country Museum for example, is a place where people can gain a historical, cultural experience of Birmingham. A high-speed rail network is to be implemented, creating a connected city, which will enable more people to work in the city centre as ommuting becomes easier, enhancing the economic climate of the city. Birmingham is a very educational city, home to over 4 universities and various colleges, and a technology and engineering quarter is to be developed as a result of the regeneration. As a whole, the Big City Plan is the most aspiring urban regeneration project to ever be established in the I-JK. As a case study I am focusing in on the area of Eastside in the heart of Birmingham city centre. It is a very run down, neglected area that is not attractive and at the present day, has almost no redeeming qualities. The Eastside area will be the location of the single largest environmental regeneration project in the city. Billions of pounds have been invested into the project for this area by investors, organizations and businesses from the local surrounding area to all over the globe. When finished, the regeneration in Eastside will have created new businesses, new jobs, enhanced the cultural experience of the place, the leisure and educational services will be vastly improved, and the residential opportunities will be improved beyond belief. The area is planned to be exclusively, the technology and learning uarter, giving it a specific quality and objective. Eastside City Park which, is yet to be built, will be when finished, the first and largest city centre park in Birmingham in over 30 years. The high speed rail network that is to be established within the city centre is to have two terminals in the Eastside area, meaning that the area will be incredibly accessible for all, bringing employment opportunities and tourism which will overall boost the economic growth of not only that specific area of Eastside but the whole city itself. The Big City Plan has a detailed section about sustainability, nd how it plans to make sure that Birmingham will become a sustainable city for the future. For example, by 2026 the city hopes to have reduced its carbon footprint by 60%. The city centre particularly, has a large part to play in aiding the achievement of reaching this goal. Birmingham hopes to reduce its reliance on non-renewable energy resources and instead build up a way of generating low-carbon energy. The local government want to focus in on the conversion and re-use of existing buildings so not as to generate more carbon emissions through building more buildings and nocking down existing ones. They also want to make the existing, functioning buildings greener by installing sustainable energy generation methods such as solar panels on roofs. Allowing the public opportunities to have their own small allotments will enable people to grow their own produce, therefore reducing the need for importing goods. These goals are not unrealistic, the city is actually in relatively a good position to reach these goals and become a truly sustainable city. When the plan is finished in 2020, a sustainable, efficient city should be the outcome. The pedestrians and cyclists will have a much higher priority over other transport methods, which will vastly improve the aesthetics of the city centre, hence improving the quality of the living and working conditions for the residents. Noise pollution will also be dramatically decreased as a result of less motor vehicles in the city centre, which will create a calmer atmosphere, leading to the promotion a certain way of life in which people would take the time to use the citys new parks to relax and do recreational activities, enhancing their quality of life even further. Another result that he government hopes to achieve is that people will be able to charge their electric vehicles in the city centre at various points. This will actively promote low emission transport and reduce carbon emissions for the city. This would be a dramatic contrast to the selection of vehicles in the city today, 95% of which are all petrol or diesel engines with high emission levels. Alterations that are to be made to the road network are going to make the roads in the city centre flow much more smoothly and reduce congestion, resulting in lower noise pollution, a lower carbon footprint and a uch more aesthetically pleasing place to be. Is urban regeneration in Birmingham done in a sustainable way, and are the future plans for urban regeneration going to create a sustainable city? I have come to the conclusion that urban regeneration in Birmingham is done in a very sustainable way. The citys authorities have developed a specific plan and method by which they will develop the city centre into an exciting, green place to be. They have considered all areas of urban generation, which I have delved into, and if completed to the standard promised, will generate a hugely efficient and sustainable city for the future.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Montréal Fine Arts Museum Essay Example For Students

The Montrà ©al Fine Arts Museum Essay The Montrà ©al Fine Arts Museum (MFAM) is a non-profit organization that was founded nearly 25 years ago by the Monet brothers, who devoted their entire lives to promoting art. For the past five years, the MFAM has grown nicely due to its Curator’s talent for putting on exhibitions that the public finds very interesting. As a result of the budget cuts announced by the government this year, grants for the arts were down considerably. The cut is even more significant for private organizations that, like the MFAM, have to raise 65% of their financing requirements through ticket sales in order to be eligible for a grant program. The Chairman is very happy to announce some excellent news. As of April 1st, the London Museum will lend to MFAM, free of charge and for a period of nine months, its entire dinosaur and prehistoric art collection. This is extremely good news because it will attract the public and generate some much needed cash flow. We will write a custom essay on The Montrà ©al Fine Arts Museum specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now It is now February 26 and the Chairman of the Board of Governors, Mr. Monet, has just asked you, CA, the newly hired Controller, for your opinion on various matters concerning the Museum. There are some concerns about the administration of the MFAM. A fraud was recently discovered involving a purchased painting that was found not to be authentic. This could have a serious impact on the Museum’s reputation and could cause the London Museum to refuse to lend its collection to the MFAM. You meet with a few different people to obtain an understanding of how the museum operates (Exhibit I). In light of this fraud, Mr. Monet wants you to recommend controls that should be implemented as well as suggesting means for ensuring they are followed. These recommendations will be executed by yourself and Mr. James, a member of the Board of Governors who is also the Controller of a company in the area. The Board of Governors also wants you to raise to their attention any other significant control and operating weaknesses in the management of the Museum. Furthermore, the MFAM announced publicly that on April 1st it will be launching a new website. The site will allow users to learn more about the permanent collection and current exhibitions as well as allow the public to make donations to the museum online. The Board of Governors has received a proposal from the potential supplier, WebStirs, (Exhibit II) and would like your opinion on it. Finally, The Board of Governors is aware that the public is still reluctant to use the internet for donations and would like you to recommend measures to be taken to reassure potential donors and encourage them to use this advanced technology.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Mystical Caves Used Throughout Mythology Essays - God, Free Essays

Mystical Caves Used Throughout Mythology Essays - God, Free Essays Mystical Caves Used Throughout Mythology The use of caves in mythology to depict darkness and abandonment has branded it as a symbol of chaos. From this perception other associations are made which connect the cave to prejudices, malevolent spirits, burial sites, sadness, resurrection and intimacy. It is a world to which only few venture, and yet its mysticism has attracted the interest of philosophers, religious figures and thinkers throughout history. These myths are exemplified in Homers "Odyssey," where the two worlds of mortals and immortals unite in the eternal cave. To Plato, the cave represents the confusion between reality and falsehood. Individuals chained deep within the recesses of the cave mistake their shadows for physical existence. These false perceptions, and the escape from bonds held within the cave symbolize transition into the a world of reality. Comparatively, in the Odyssey, Odysseus must first break with Kalypso, and set himself free before he can return to Ithaka, when he will then be prepared to release Penelope from the bondage of suitors. His experience within the cave is in itself a world of fantasy, in that Kalypso is a supernatural being, and the only way to escape her enslavement is to receive assistance from immortals superior to her. The philosopher Francis Bacon also theorized about the myth attached to caves in which he maintained that "idols," meaning prejudices and preconceived notions possessed by an individual, were contained in a persons "cave," or obscure, compartment, with "intricate and winding chambers"1 . Beliefs that caves were inhabited by negative thoughts, or spirits, were also held by the native-American culture, in which these spirits influenced the outcome of all human strivings, and had to be maintained inside caves. The souls of the dead were thought to be the most malevolent of all spirits, and were held within the deepest parts of the cave. In Greek mythology this also holds true, according the legend in which Cronus was placed in a cave in the deepest part of the underworld. This was done by Zeus and his siblings after waging war against their father for swallowing them at birth for fear that they might overthrow him. Incidently, Zeus was raised in a cave after Rhea hid him from Cronus. For his punishment, Cronus was placed in Tartarus to prevent his return to earth, which would unbalance the system of authority established by Zeus. Beyond the shadows of the cave, however, this balanced system of power is nonexistent. It becomes a system both unstable and lawless, and survival as a guest in such a cave is only accomplished through the complete submission to the sovereign. In Odysseus encounter with the Cyclops, it is his disregard for Polyphemos authority that costs him the lives of several companions, and ultimately a ten year delay on his return home. The land of the Cyclops epitomizes darkness, chaos, and abandonment; where the only law exists past the entrance of the cave. From the islands shore a "high wall of...boulders"2 can be seen encircling each cave. Clearly impossible of being accomplished by mortals, massive walls of similar description found standing after the Persian Wars were also thought by ancient Greeks to be the work of the Cyclops. Unfamiliar to this system of power, Odysseus disregards these laws and enters the cave without an invitation. For this reason, Polyphemos implicates his own punishment onto the trespassers, and kills six men. In order to escape the wrath of the Cyclops, Odysseus eventually blinds him, an offense which falls under the jurisdiction of Poseidon, and for which he ultimately pays throughout his wanderings. The uncontrollable winds next direct Odysseus through a narrow strait outlined by rocks and cliffs through which he must pass to return home. On these cliffs which stand opposite each other lurk Scylla and Charybdis, one side "reach[ing] up into...heaven"3 and the other not quite as high. Scylla, a creature with twelve feet and six necks, resides in a cave upon this high cliff and devours sailors from fleeting ships. Across the stream of water dwells Charybdis, a dreadful whirlpool beneath a fig tree. Three times daily the maelstrom forms, and shipwrecks passing vessels. In the "Odyssey," Odysseus and his crew encounter these two sea

Sunday, March 1, 2020

17 SAT Hacks to Help You Ace the Exam

17 SAT Hacks to Help You Ace the Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Standardized tests have a reputation for presenting questions in formats that are tricky and confusing. Wouldn't it be great if there was a way to get past all that and take a shortcut to the correct answer? This article provides expert SAT hacks to help you solve SAT questions that might otherwise leave you stumped! Can You Actually â€Å"Hack† the SAT? Well, yes and no. Quick tidbits of advice like the ones in this articlecan prevent you from squandering your potential and teach you how to work with the test to earn the best score possible. However, you can’t rely on shortcuts to arrive at an excellent score if you’re missing knowledge that is critical for understanding essential aspects of the test. Be warned that these SAT hacks, though helpful,are no substitute for in-depth studying, especially if you struggle with the content at a fundamental level.If you think you need prep that addresses deeper weaknesses, you should check out our complete guide on how to study for the SAT. Overall SAT Hacks Here are some tricks you can use on any part of the SAT to help you get through the section and earn the most points possible. #1: Answer Every Question (No Matter What) The SAT doesn’t have a guessing penalty, so you should fill in an answer bubble for every question even if you have no clue what the correct response is.If you find yourself with a few questions left in the section and only 30 seconds on the clock, you should provide random answers for all of them.You never know if you’ll get lucky and answer one or two correctly, and even if you don’t, your score won’t be any lower than if you had left the questions blank. #2: Be Prepared for the Format Knowing what to expect is half the battle on the SAT.When you sit down to take the test, you want everything to look familiar so you can avoid mistakes triggered by stress. At the very least, you shouldreview the timing and structure of the exambefore test day.Taking practice tests with appropriate time constraints is the best thing you can do to alleviate confusion on this front. #3: Don’t Linger on Hard Questions Getting stuck on one question for too long can do serious damage to your performance on the SAT, especially considering the fact that there are only four sections.If you have no idea how to solve a math problem or can’t seem to settle on one choice for a writing or reading question, skip it and move on.You can come back to it after you make it through the rest of the section. #4: Practice Managing Anxiety Especially if you’re hoping to earn a really high score, coming across a problem that stumps you can kill your momentum on the test.To avoid this pitfall, you need to establish coping mechanisms to deal with these moments of doubt without letting them affect your overall performance. Mindfulness techniques are a great tool to have in your arsenal. Check out this article for more tips on how to reduce test anxiety! Imagine you're not taking the SAT. Instead, you're floating on a serene lake under a beautiful blue sky. You still have to stay awake, though. Seriously, don't fall asleep. SAT Reading Hacks Here are a few more SAT hacks that are specific to the content and format of the SAT Reading section. #5: Plan a Passage Reading Strategy Don’t jump into the test without deciding how you plan to approach passages on the Reading section.Are you more comfortable with skimming, or do you like to read the questions first and then go back and reference the passage to locate the answers? Complete apractice Reading section with appropriate time constraints so you can figure out what feels most comfortable for you and makes for the fewest struggles with time management. #6: Take Advantage of Find the Evidence Questions Find the evidence questions on the SAT are a gift because they help make the correct answers to the previous questions clearer.If none of the answer choices for a find the evidence question make sense in conjunction with your answer to the previous question, this should prompt you to double-check your reasoning.These questions remind you that you need to choose answers to Reading questions based on concrete statements made in the passage.If you made any unfounded assumptions, find the evidence questions will alert you to your mistakes. #7: Engage With the Content It’s much easier to get through the Reading section if you develop an interest in what the passages have to say.You’ll also retain more information from the passage when you move onto the questions. To get yourself interested, envision a scenario in which it's absolutely critical for you to remember what the passage says so you can explain it to other people. Imagine that you'll be presenting the information in the passage to another group of students after you finish reading it. "Notice anything different about me? Teehee" Denise, I accept that love is love, but you just met the SAT Reading section a week ago. YOU'VE BEEN HURT TOO MANY TIMES. SAT Writing Hacks These hacks will give you some insight into the way Writing questions work and how you can answer them more efficiently. #8: When in Doubt, Choose the Most Concise Answer The shortest answer is often the best answer on the Writing section because good writing consists of saying what needs to be said without any unnecessary fluff.Super wordy answers are usually not the ones you want.Of course, this doesn’t hold true for every single question, but it’s a solid rule of thumb if you’re stuck. #9: NO CHANGE Answers Are Just Like Other Choices Often, NO CHANGE answers are wrongfully viewed as more likely or less likely options than other answer choices in the Writing section. In fact, they’re just as likely to be correct as any of the alternative options. Don’t be afraid to pick NO CHANGE if you’ve double checked your reasoning and determined that it’s the correct choice. #10: Get Rid of Duplicate Answers Sometimes, questions on the Writing section will have answer choices that are so similar to one another that choosing one over the other wouldn’t make any functional difference in the sentence structure. Thismeans you can get rid of two choices in one fell swoop.If they’re essentially the same answers, then neither of them is unique enough to be the correct choice.Here's an example: In this case, C and D are functionally the same answers. They both indicate that the author is about to make a statement that goes against what was said in the previous sentence or sentences. Both C and D can be eliminated (the answer is NO CHANGE for this question). Sometimes answer options are just two halves of the same bad berry. This strawberry actually looks really good though. SAT Math Hacks The SAT has two Math sections, one taken without the use of a calculator and one taken with the use of a calculator.On both of these sections, you can use the following SAT hacksto improve your performance. #: Don’t Ignore Diagrams In many cases, the test will provide a diagram to help illustrate a math problem.These diagrams exist for your benefit, so make sure you pay attention to all the information they give you.Does your answer mesh with the way the diagram looks?If you’re asked to find a dimension of a shape, make sure the relative sizes make sense. Your final answer shouldn’t seem out of whack with what the diagram is telling you. #12: Know the Formulas Although the SAT does provide important formulas at the beginning of each of the Math sections, you’ll be a much more efficient test-taker if you have the formulas memorized.It's a waste of time to keep flipping back to the beginning of the section whenever you think you need a formula to solve a problem. For studying purposes, here'sa list of all the formulas you might need for the SAT Math section. #13: Underline Your Goal To keep yourself on track in the Math section, underline the value that you need to find (and circle it in the diagram if applicable).It's frustrating to confidently solve a math problem and later realize that you had to take your calculations one step further to actually get the answer the question wanted. In many cases, the wrong answers will be answers that you might get if you didn’t complete the solution process or solved for the incorrect quantity. #14: Plug in Answers If you have no idea how to solve a math problem, one way to get around that is just toplug in the answer choicesuntil you find the correct solution.This oftentakes longer than solving aproblem with algebra, but if you have time, it can be a useful strategy. Plugs, not drugs. This is probably a t-shirt by now, right? SAT Essay Hacks The essay is optional on the SAT, but many colleges still require it. Hereare some ways you can improve the quality of your essay with minimal effort. #15: Provide a Clear Thesis The essay graders are looking for an easy way to interpret your essay and understand the points you’re making.The best way to tap into this is to write a strong thesis that falls at the end of the introductory paragraph.Reread the central claim of the passage that’s described in the prompt, and transpose it into your thesis statement. Make sure you sketch out the structure of your essay in your thesis by listing three examples of major techniques the author uses to support his or her argument. #16: Write a Good Intro and Conclusion The introductory and concluding paragraphs are extremely important because graders typically pay the most attention to these parts of your essay.The introduction gives graders a preview of the quality of the rest of the essay and the way you’ll structure your ideas.It also contains your thesis, which is the most critical sentence in the entire essay and is what ties all of your points together. #17: Write More Than One Page Try to make your essay around two pages long.The graders don’t have a specific quota for the number of words they want to see, but they expect you to provide a response that fully addresses the most important components of the author’s argument.It’s almost impossible to do this if your response only takes up one page.Consider whether you’ve really explained what’s going on in the passage, and if necessary add more evidence to make your essay complete. Also, make sure your writing is legible. If you bring a quill to the test, expect some backlash. Conclusion: How to Hack the SAT "Hacking" the SAT is possible to an extent, but you need to understand the content fairly well before you can employ most of these tips successfully. To recap, here's a list of all the SAT hacks listed in the article organized by section: Overall Answer every question Be prepared for the format Don't linger on hard questions Learn to manage anxiety Reading Develop a passage reading strategy Use find the evidence questions to your advantage Engage with the content Writing Choose the most concise answer Remember that NO CHANGE answers are no more or less common than other options Eliminate duplicate answer options Math Don't ignore the diagrams Underline your goal Know the formulas Plug in answer options Essay Provide a clear thesis Write a strong introduction and conclusion Write at least two pages If you follow all these pieces of advice and combine them with in-depth studying, you'll be well on your way to an awesome score on the SAT! What's Next? If you think you need more structured guidance in your studying for the SAT, check out our list of the best prep books released this year. Khan Academy now provides free SAT prep services. Learn more abouthow it works and how to get the most out of these resources. There are also other ways to practice for the SAT online that you may not know about. Read all about the best websites to use for SAT prep! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep classes. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our classes are entirely online, and they're taught by SAT experts. If you liked this article, you'll love our classes. Along with expert-led classes, you'll get personalized homework with thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step, custom program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Try it risk-free today: